NB - (contd) Since my analysis has raised some scholarly issues with regard to the advent of the nation-state (some think it emerged with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648), I'd like to clarify this matter. Westphalia had to do with sovereignty, not nationalism. Although the absolutist monarchies of late 18th century Europe were precursors to the nation state, it was not until the idea of a ethnically defined 'nation' entered the domain of state legitimacy that the nation-state as a political entity could be said to come into existence. Arendt always referred to
Aside from the Russian (anti Jewish) pogroms of the early 20th century, the first major instance of state-sponsored ethnic cleansing was the mass expulsion of
(For an introduction, see <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minority_Treaties>)
The Polish treaty was the first (1919) the Turkish (1923) the last, in a series of 9 such arrangements. It is in these agreements that the idea of majority and minority received formalisation in the new world order inaugurated by the League. And as I have argued above , the nation state was conceived as an entity with a homogenous core. As such, the acceptance of the nation-state as the norm in international relations could be said to have begun with Versailles.
This is why my sentence under the sub-title Nationalism reads 'Nation-states were formalized by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles' - not that they were invented by it. Incidentally, the League of Nation's concept of the nation being the 'majority' was cited by VD Savarkar in his insistence that India had to be conceived as Hindu Rashtra.
Two excellent accounts of the minority question may be read in Hannah Arendt's Origins of Totalitarianism, in the subsection called ‘The “Nation of Minorities” and the Stateless People’, pp. 344–368; and Mark Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe’s Twentieth Century (
BHARAT BHUSHAN - ‘Progress’ is no balm for the Kashmiri’s daily humiliations
Jamal Kidwai on Kashmir today - Look Within
Rashmi Singh - Migrant Workers in the Kashmir Valley
Hannah Arendt: Reflections on Violence (1969)
Hannah Arendt’s conception of Sovereignty
WOLE SOYINKA: Religion Against Humanity